It is said “in wine, there is truth”, but apart from truth, which other components constitute wine?
Wine contains very small amount of proteins, 1 to 2 g per liter, and the average protein intake is a-gram-per-body-weight. Despite of this fact, wine contains all the essential amino acids, even certain peptides.
In alcoholic fermentation, a majority of glucose found in grape juice converts into cellular energy thereby producing alcohol (ethanol and carbon dioxide). Red wines are specific in a sense that only a small amount of sugar (glucose and fructose), remains in wine, 2-3 g per liter. White wines may contain even up to 20 g per liter, while liqueurs may have up to 100 g per liter.
Wine does not contain lipids. However, they may emerge during wine production and can induce negative sensation. This oil is actually contained in grape seed extracts which occur when grapes goes through a wine press.
One liter of wine may contain different amounts of water:
730 ml in aromatic wines;
880 ml in 11-percent white wines;
920 ml in 12-percent wines.
Wine contains different amounts of alcohol. Alcohol levels may be:
75 g/l in 9-percent wines;
88 g/l in 11-percent wines;
96 g/l in 12-percent wines;
160 g/l in aromatic wines.
The amount of alcohol in wine varies upon the sugar level contained within the grapes and eventual capitalization. Over time, the alcohol level in wine decreases.
– Mineral salts
Wine also contains substantial amounts of mineral salts, potassium for instance. Magnesium and calcium are found in ionized form which is why they are easily absorbed in the small intestine. The amount of sodium is very small.
– Inorganic chemical elements
Certain wines contain much iron in the most absorbable form called hem iron. This is why wine may be considered as an iron source, still we need to be careful in cases when wine contains a lot of tannin, since this may inhibit iron intestinal absorption.
The findings suggest wine contains very small amounts of vitamins. Vitamin B1 is inactive since most wines also contains sulphytes. Moreover, it has very small amounts of vitamin B12, and interestingly, has almost no vitamin C whatsoever even though it is found in grapes.
Polyphenols are most notable element in wine. The amount of polyphenol in white wines is around 1.2 g/l and red wines may have up to 3 g/l even. These compounds are proven to be beneficial to cardiovascular system.
– Mineral acids
Primarily, these are tartaric, malic and salicylic acid. Due to them wine is an acidic alcoholic liquid with pH value ranging between 2 and 3, similar to the gastric acid pH value. Their role is very important because they enable easier food processing (digestion), meet in particular.
– Other elements
Wine also contains aldehydes (20 mg/l) which when related to other elements form a liquid matter responsible for the aroma of wine, but other things as well.